ADS Classic is now deprecated.
It will be completely retired in October 2019. Please redirect your searches to the new ADS modern form
or the classic form
. More info can be found on our blog
Terms and Conditions for Use of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System
Use of the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) services implies that
the User has read and agrees to the following terms and conditions:
- Full-text articles and abstracts of papers available from the ADS
databases are copyrighted by the respective publishers and are subject
to all applicable copyright protection
under the laws of the United States and other countries.
The reproduction of full-text articles or abstracts requires express
written permission from the publisher.
- Individual users may download, store and print copies of such
abstracts and articles for personal use only and provided that such
copies are not sold or redistributed.
- Users may not perform systematic downloads of articles, abstracts, or
tables of contents for any purpose, whether commercial or not,
without the written permission of the ADS. This includes
indiscriminate, mass downloads of search results and the use of robots.
- The ADS makes reasonable efforts to ensure that the contents
of its archives are accurate.
However, ADS does not guarantee the completeness, accuracy or usefulness
of its databases and search interfaces.
The ADS is not to be considered liable for any delay, downtime, or
other failure of performance in providing its services.
If you wish to acknowledge the services provided by ADS in a
publication, kindly use a phrase such as the following:
This research has made use of NASA's
Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services.